Hello fellow designers,

For those who are not aware of it, I would like to mention the availability of a recently published Welding Research Council Bulletin.

WRC Bulletin 451, May 2000

Report 1
Code Rules for Internal Pressure Design of Isolated Nozzles in Cylindrical Vessels with d/D up to and Including 1.00. E.C. Rodabaugh

Report 2
Limit Analysis and Burst Test for large Diameter Intersections, Z.F. Sang, L.P.Xue, Y.J. Lin, G.E.O. Widera

In Bill Kove’s Forward to the Bulletin, he points out that the nozzle (or branch connection) “area replacement” rules of the piping and pressure vessel codes have been in use for more than 60 years. While these pressure design rules have generally provided good results, they have limitations and are in some applications, excessively conservative.

In the first report, Everett reviews existing Code rules (including some from outside the USA) and compares the design criteria against test data and elastic finite element analyses. Recommendations for design rule improvements are made for both radial and non-radial openings.

In the second report, Professor Sang presents experimental data on fully instrumented (strain gages) pressure vessels with both radial and non-radial nozzles subjected to internal pressure.

This is an excellent source for those of us who work with these design issues - especially in the areas on non-radial branch connections and very large diameter pipe.

There is availability and pricing data at this address:

Best regards, John.

[This message has been edited by John Breen (edited January 05, 2001).]
John Breen